Showing posts with label industrial automation. Show all posts
Showing posts with label industrial automation. Show all posts

Thursday, August 18, 2022

Industrial Uses of Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) Explained

Industrial Uses of Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Introduction: What is an RTD?

RTDs are sensors that measure the temperature of a material and provide an indication of its resistance to thermal changes.

An RTD is a sensor that measures the temperature of a material and provides an indication of its resistance to thermal changes. RTDs can be manufactured as either a wire or as a thin film on silicon.

The first RTD was developed in 1887 by German inventor Hermann von Helmholtz.

RTDs are typically used in industrial applications such as power plants, refineries, paper mills, and steel mills where they monitor temperatures of process fluids, gases, or equipment surfaces.

RTDs have also been used for years in home appliances like ovens and furnaces to control the temperature inside them.

What is a Typical Industrial Use of RTDs?

RTDs are used in industrial settings to measure the temperature of liquids and gases. This is done by measuring the resistance of a metal element which changes with temperature. RTDs have many applications in industry, such as controlling the temperature of devices, monitoring equipment, and testing for leaks.

Industrial use of RTDs can be found in a wide range of industries. For example, they are used to monitor the temperature of food processing plants and oil refineries. They are also used for quality control purposes in semiconductor manufacturing plants and petrochemical factories.

Other Industrial Uses of Resistance Temperature Detectors

Industrial use of RTDs is extremely common in the manufacturing industry. They are used in industrial processes to measure and control temperature, as well as to detect hot spots and cool spots.

RTDs are also used in many engineering applications such as process control, instrumentation, and automation for a variety of purposes.

Duro-Sense Corporation
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https://duro-sense.com



Sunday, June 30, 2019

US Power Grids, Oil and Gas Industries, and Risk of Hacking


A report released in June, from the security firm Dragos, describes a worrisome development by a hacker group named, “Xenotime” and at least two dangerous oil and gas intrusions and ongoing reconnaissance on United States power grids.

Multiple ICS (Industrial Control Sectors) sectors now face the XENOTIME threat; this means individual verticals – such as oil and gas, manufacturing, or electric – cannot ignore threats to other ICS entities because they are not specifically targeted.


The Dragos researchers have termed this threat proliferation as the world’s most dangerous cyberthreat since an event in 2017 where Xenotime had caused a serious operational outage at a crucial site in the Middle East.

The fact that concerns cybersecurity experts the most is that this hacking attack was a malware that chose to target the facility safety processes (SIS – safety instrumentation system).

For example, when temperatures in a reactor increase to an unsafe level, an SIS will automatically start a cooling process or immediately close a valve to prevent a safety accident. The SIS safety stems are both hardware and software that combine to protect facilities from life threatening accidents.

At this point, no one is sure who is behind Xenotime. Russia has been connected to one of the critical infrastructure attacks in the Ukraine.  That attack was viewed to be the first hacker related power grid outage.

This is a “Cause for Concern” post that was published by Dragos on June 14, 2019.

“While none of the electric utility targeting events has resulted in a known, successful intrusion into victim organizations to date, the persistent attempts, and expansion in scope is cause for definite concern. XENOTIME has successfully compromised several oil and gas environments which demonstrates its ability to do so in other verticals. Specifically, XENOTIME remains one of only four threats (along with ELECTRUM, Sandworm, and the entities responsible for Stuxnet) to execute a deliberate disruptive or destructive attack.

XENOTIME is the only known entity to specifically target safety instrumented systems (SIS) for disruptive or destructive purposes. Electric utility environments are significantly different from oil and gas operations in several aspects, but electric operations still have safety and protection equipment that could be targeted with similar tradecraft. XENOTIME expressing consistent, direct interest in electric utility operations is a cause for deep concern given this adversary’s willingness to compromise process safety – and thus integrity – to fulfill its mission.

XENOTIME’s expansion to another industry vertical is emblematic of an increasingly hostile industrial threat landscape. Most observed XENOTIME activity focuses on initial information gathering and access operations necessary for follow-on ICS intrusion operations. As seen in long-running state-sponsored intrusions into US, UK, and other electric infrastructure, entities are increasingly interested in the fundamentals of ICS operations and displaying all the hallmarks associated with information and access acquisition necessary to conduct future attacks. While Dragos sees no evidence at this time indicating that XENOTIME (or any other activity group, such as ELECTRUM or ALLANITE) is capable of executing a prolonged disruptive or destructive event on electric utility operations, observed activity strongly signals adversary interest in meeting the prerequisites for doing so.”