Showing posts with label resistance temperature detector. Show all posts
Showing posts with label resistance temperature detector. Show all posts

Friday, November 9, 2018

Platinum Resistance Temperature Detectors

Platinum Resistance Thermometers Detectors (RTDs) rely on the fact that platinum, like many other metals, exhibits increased electrical resistance as temperature rises. For example, a conventional RTD designed to provide 100 Ohms at 0 °C has a resistance in the neighborhood of 80 Ohms at -50 °C and 120 Ohms at 50 °C, or a sensitivity of about 0.4 Ohms per degree. RTDs constructed to particularly exacting specifications, termed Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers, are named as the defining measurement tools for interpolating temperatures under ITS-90. In general, RTDs can have high accuracy (0.01 °C), stability, and repeatability across a wide range of temperatures from -200 °C to 500 °C.

Typically the platinum element is formed into thick or thin films, or the platinum wire is arranged in two, three or four helical coils (see diagram, right) – the more coils, the higher the sensitivity. The film or wire is placed inside a glass or ceramic enclosure, and can be supported by loose or compacted MgO. Platinum-based leads connect the probe unit to the thermometer electronics, which convert the electrical signal to temperature.

RTDs are broadly divided into two groups: Industrial RTDs and Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers, depending on sensitivity and robustness. ASTM and IEC define several classes of RTDs, each with a different set of specifications. An ASTM "Class A" unit, for example, has an out-of-the-box tolerance — maximum permissible error — that ranges from 0.47 °C at -200 °C to 0.13 °C at 0 °C to 0.98 °C at 500 °C.

Advantages

  • Wide temperature range
  • Resistance-temperature relationship is well characterized.
  • Rugged construction in industrial RTDs
  • Available in different shapes and sizes – application specific
  • Can be used with a digital temperature read-out device.

Disadvantages

  • Mechanical shock and vibration will cause drift.
  • Deterioration at elevated temperatures (e.g., >500 °C)
  • 2-and 3-wire devices need lead-wire compensation.
  • Non-hermetically sealed RTDs will deteriorate in environments with excessive moisture.



Post abstracted from "Mercury Thermometer Alternatives: Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs)" by NIST.

Friday, June 8, 2018

Precision RTD's (Resistance Temperature Detectors)

Duro-Sense RTDs, thermowells, and accessories provide high quality solutions to the aerospace, aviation, process control, medical, R&D, power generation, alternative energy, plastics, primary metals, high-tech and OEM industries.

https://duro-sense.com
310-533-6877

Monday, February 5, 2018

Temperature Sensor Basics: RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detectors)

RTD
RTD temperature sensor with
threaded connector (Duro-Sense)
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD’s) operate under the principle that the electrical resistance of certain metals increases or decreases in a repeatable and predictable manner with a temperature change. RTD’s may have a lower temperature range than some thermocouples and a slower response time, however, they are more stable and repeatable over long periods of time. RTD’s offer considerably higher accuracy and repeatability than thermocouples and can be used up to 600 Deg. Celsius. 

RTD diagram
Simple RTD diagram (courtesy of Wikipedia)
The RTD wire is usually a pure metal such as platinum, nickel or copper because these metals have a predictable change in resistance as the temperature changes. They are normally designed as a fine wire coiled around a bobbin (made of glass or ceramic), and inserted into a protective sheath. Because they are made of pure metals, they tend to more costly than thermocouples. RTD’s do need to be supplied an excitation voltage from the control circuitry as well. RTD’s higher signal output makes them easier to interface with computers and data loggers and reduces the effects of radio frequency interference.

RTD’s are used in many industries including the plastic processing industry, environmental test chambers, motor windings, pumps and bearings, ovens, kilns, waste treatment and the pulp and paper industry.  Because of their accuracy and repeatability, they are also commonly used in biomedical applications, aerospace, and semiconductor processing.

https://duro-sense.com
310-533-6877